Peter White

Professor

Biography

About Me

After my undergraduate studies in Biotechnology from King’s College London, I completed a PhD at University College, London in molecular microbiology and protein biochemistry. In 1996, I started a period of Postdoctoral research at Macquarie University, Sydney, as a recipient of a Royal Society Fellowship. Then in 1998, I joined the Virology Division, Prince of Wales Hospital as Hepatitis Group Leader until 2002. In January 2003, I was appointed as a Senior Lecturer at UNSW and established a molecular microbiology research group and laboratory within the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences. Currently, I lead a highly successful research team attracting substantial peer-reviewed and industry funding, as well as Postgraduate and Honours students. The main research areas of the lab include molecular virology, the development of antivirals, tracking pandemic noroviruses and viral evolution. In addition to leading the research group, I am also the course Coordinator for the third year science course Viruses and Disease (MICR3061), and I lecture on numerous 1st, 2nd and 3rd year courses here at UNSW.

Education

  • B.Sc. Hons (King’s College, London) 1992
  • PhD (University College, London) 1996

Professional experience

  • 2013-current: Professor, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (BABS)
  • 2008-2012: Associate Professor, School of BABS
  • 2003-2007: Senior Lecturer, School of BABS, UNSW
  • 2003-current: Honorary Consultant Virologist, Prince of Wales Hospital
  • 1998-2002: Hepatitis Group Leader, Virology Division, Prince of Wales Hospital
  • 1997-1998: NHMRC-funded Postdoctoral Researcher, Macquarie University
  • 1996-1997: Royal Society Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Macquarie University

Research

Research Program

Norovirus Research

Norovirus (NoV) is now recognised as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) accounting for approximately one fifth of all cases globally. NoV causes illness in around 684 million people every year, resulting in an estimated 218,000 deaths, mainly affecting children within developing countries. Aside from the significant mortality, the global societal costs caused by NoV exceed US $60 billion each year, as a result of health expenditure, morbidity and financial burdens caused by business closures, time off work and hospitalisations.

NoV transmission occurs primarily from person-to-person, however, transmission through contaminated food and water makes this virus a significant viral pathogen in terms of food and water outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Pandemics of acute gastroenteritis are associated with a genetic lineage of noroviruses called GII.4. Peter’s research over the last 18 years has examined evolutionary processes that have led to the emergence of pandemic NoVs.

Progress made so far in the molecular biology of NoV by White’s group has revealed the presence of a particularly important genotype of the virus, known as NoV Genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4; over 30 other genotypes of NoV exist), as the cause of global pandemics of gastroenteritis, accounting for more than 70% of all NoV infections. Since the first characterised global pandemic of acute gastroenteritis in the mid-1990s, Peter White's group has been instrumental in identifying and tracing the cause - pandemic GII.4 NoVs. Seminal work by White’s group has shown that the emergence of pandemic GII.4 NoVs is driven by two factors; i) the generation of point mutations in antigenic regions of the viral capsid, in an analogous manner to influenza, and ii) through recombination between two NoVs during a co-infection. Current research from the group on both human and mouse NoV involves development of antiviral agents and research into the host innate immune response, molecular epidemiology, pathogenesis and replication.

Peter's group has a strong collaboration with the New South Wales Ministry of Health, which monitors outbreaks of gastroenteritis for the State, as well as OzFoodNet and the NSW Public Health Unit. In 2007 Peter established the Australian and New Zealand Norovirus Surveillance Network, a network of large testing laboratories in major cities around Australia and New Zealand. The Network collectively monitors the emergence of new epidemic and pandemic viruses linked to outbreaks of NoV associated gastroenteritis. This network directly links in with two other networks, the Food-borne Viruses in Europe (FBVE) network and CaliciNet run by the U.S. Centres for Disease Control, to form the global Norovirus surveillance network, termed NoroNet. Collaborative work by the group was published in the Journal of Infectious Disease in 2009.

Antiviral Research

Our research focusses on the development of small compound antivirals, including non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, TL7 agonists and nucleoside analogues for the treatment of positive sense RNA viruses, including norovirus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), Zika virus, dengue virus, and other caliciviruses such as feline calicivirus and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. These positive sense RNA genomes replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected cell via minus-strand RNA intermediates. In the field of virology, there is an extremely active hunt for new antiviral agents to treat and prevent viral infections. One target for drug development is the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) because of its key role in replication. Using our established methodology we have produced highly purified, soluble and active recombinant RdRps from a range of viruses, using Escherichia coli expression systems.

High throughput screening (HTS) is a standard platform used to identify lead chemical compounds for drug development. The aim of the antiviral program is to conduct high throughput screening (HTS) campaigns against the viral RNA polymerases to identify and characterise lead compounds and derivatives for potential antiviral therapy.

Hepatitis C Virus Research

Infection with HCV contributes one of the most important health care burdens both in Australia and worldwide with more than 135 million people infected. The majority of infected individuals develop persistent infection (70%) and an associated risk of progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the field of HCV, Peter has contributed several landmark publications in relation to replication, molecular tools, HCV epidemiology, reinfection and antiviral agents. Using modern molecular biology techniques, next generation sequencing and bioinformatics, the group studies the replication and evolution of HCV within infected individuals.

Older therapies for HCV only worked in around 50-80% of infected patients and had adverse side effects, however because of intense research there is now a range of new antivirals that can now cure 95% of infected patients in 8-12 weeks. Most of these new drugs were made against genotype 1 HCV, whilst nearly half the Australian HCV infected population have a genotype 3 infection. The aim of this study is therefore to determine which genotype 1 antivirals work on genotype 3 HCV.

Paleovirology

The study of ancient viruses has been termed paleovirology. The aim of this program is to resurrect and study ancient viruses, or “zombie viruses” that could be used as biocontrol agents for the control of insects that carry human pathogens such as dengue virus and West Nile virus.

The genomes of animals and insects contain traces of past viral infections through the integration of viral genetic material into the host genome, termed endogenous viral elements (EVEs). These viral fossils can be used to look at viruses that once existed thousands of years ago. Around 1% of the human genome is comprised of EVEs, of which the vast majority are retroviruses that naturally insert their genomes into the host genome as part of their life cycle. For other viruses, germ line integration is extremely rare, but has been documented in many organisms. The most surprising viral fossils originate from RNA viruses.

The genome of the Aedes mosquito contains numerous sequences exhibiting similarity to viruses of the Flaviviridae family which comprise RNA viruses, as well as other viral families. Using the Aedes aegyptii genome we have identified 220 EVE fragments. Some we have pieced back together to create partial genomes of extinct viruses. The aim of this project is to determine if we can find ancient viruses within the DNA of other hosts, including the cane toad, which we are currently sequencing.

Supervision Opportunities/Areas

In the School of BABS we teach undergraduates, mentor postgraduate research students and conduct research in the disciplines of biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, microbiology, environmental microbiology, medical microbiology and immunology. We empower our students, giving them the tools and experience to embark on a career that is richer, more fulfilling and constantly fascinating.

The Molecular Microbiology Laboratory lab is part of the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (BABS) and located in state-of-the-art facilities. Research in this multi-disciplined group encompasses molecular virology, antiviral drug discovery, viral evolution, viral biocontrol and paleovirology.

Project 1:  Norovirus replication and epidemiology

Norovirus is the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and is responsible for around 219,000 deaths each year. Major pandemics of norovirus gastroenteritis occur around every three years, with six pandemics since 1996. These pandemics are associated with novel noroviruses from a single genotype (GII.4), which escape herd immunity through both antigenic drift and shift. Our group is part of international and national networks that trace and track pandemic noroviruses globally. We first identified and characterised two of the six pandemic viruses; Hunter 2004 and Sydney 2012, both responsible for global epidemics of gastroenteritis. We have developed a number of norovirus molecular detection and bioinformatics tools over the last few years for molecular virology studies. The aim of this project is to conduct a detailed molecular epidemiological and evolutionary analysis of Australian noroviruses, using both clinical samples and wastewater. The project will determine if current outbreaks are associated with the emergence of novel virus variants or recombinant (hybrid) viruses.

Project 2:  Antiviral Research: Development of small compound antivirals

Traditionally, antiviral drugs have been ‘one drug, one bug’, meaning a new drug is required to treat every virus. There is an active hunt for new, effective antivirals to treat and prevent viral infections, and drugs which target multiple viruses could be invaluable as a first line of defence. Our research focuses on the development of broad-spectrum, small compound antivirals, to combat positive sense RNA viruses in the Caliciviridae (norovirus, feline calicivirus), Flaviviridae (hepatitis C virus, Zika virus, dengue virus) and Hepeviridae (hepatitis E virus). Our main target is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) because of its key role in viral replication. We have produced purified, soluble and active recombinant RdRps from many viruses, using Escherichia coli expression systems and used these to identify novel RdRp inhibitors. Promising inhibitors are taken forward to cell culture where we use live viruses and replicons to test their suitability as broad-spectrum drugs. In silico modelling is also performed on promising compounds to predict possible binding interations. The aim of the antiviral project is to conduct screening campaigns against the viral RdRps to identify lead compounds for potential antiviral therapies.

Project 3:  Discovering new cane toad viruses

In 1935, 101 Hawaiian cane toads were introduced into Queensland to control the cane beetle. Now, over 2 billion feral toads ravage 1.2 million km2 of northern Australia and threaten native species. One way to eliminate the cane toad is to find new, deadly, toad-specific viruses. Previous cane toad viruses were not suitable for biocontrol as they could affect native amphibians. The aim of this project is to increase our understanding of the cane toad and to find new viruses that can infect it. Our lab is collaborating with several institutions and we have already sequenced the entire 2 Gb cane toad genome for the first time. We are performing RNA-seq and PCR-based techniques on toad tissues sourced from diverse locations to find viruses that are infecting toads in nature. This project involves a combination of wet lab work involving nucleic acid and virus extraction from toad tissues, and PCR amplification methods to find viruses. This project also involves bioinformatic analysis of toad RNA-seq data and genomic data to find virus-like sequences.

Project 4: Paleovirology: Finding ancient viruses using bioinformatics

The study of ancient viruses is termed paleovirology. The aim of this project is to find ancient viruses, or ‘fossil remnants of viruses’. The genomes of animals and insects contain traces of past viral infections through the integration of viral genetic material into the host genome, termed endogenous viral elements (EVEs). These viral fossils can be used to find viruses that existed thousands of years ago. Around 5% of the human genome is comprised of EVEs, of which the vast majority are retroviruses that naturally insert their genomes into the host genome as part of their life cycle. For other viruses, germ line integration is rare, but has been documented in many organisms. Using bioinformatics, our lab aims to find EVEs in diverse groups of animals. Using genomes from mosquitoes, flies, and ticks, we have identified hundreds of EVEs, and identified unique patterns and a link to innate immune pathways in the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis. We aim to find more viral fossils in the genomes of other animals, including marsupials, which are ecologically threatened.

Current Supervision

  • Jennifer Lun
  • Natalie Netzler
  • Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu
  • Alice Russo
  • Grace Yan
  • Emma Harding

Contact Peter about research supervision opportunities: p.white@unsw.edu.au

Teaching and Outreach

Courses I contribute to teaching

  • BABS1202 - Applied Biomolecular Sciences (1st year)
  • MICR2011 - Microbiology 1 (2nd year) (Course Co-convenor)
  • MICR3061 – Viruses and Disease (3rd year) (Course Convenor)
  • BABS3200 -Synthetic Biology (3rd year)
  • 1st and 2nd year Medicine

Professional affiliations and service positions

External - Societies

  • Australian Centre for HIV and Hepatitis Virology (ACH2). Executive Committee member (2011-present)
  • Australasian Virology Society, Committee Member (2009-2017)
  • Chair, Australia and New Zealand Norovirus Surveillance Network (2007-present)
  • Fellow of the Australian Society of Microbiology (FASM) (2012-present) 
  • Member of the America Society for Microbiology (2004-present)
  • Member of the Society for General Microbiology (1994-present)
  • Australian Centre for Hepatitis Virology (ACHV) (President 2011-2013)
  • Australian Centre for Hepatitis Virology, (Vice President 2006-2011)
  • Australian Centre for Hepatitis Virology, (Treasurer 2002-2006) 
  • Australian Society of Microbiology, Division 2 Chair (2008-2010)
  • Australian Society of Microbiology, Member of the National Scientific Advisory Committee 2008-2010
  • ICTV Caliciviridae Study Group

Internal - UNSW

  • UNSW Institutional Bio-Safety committee member (2003-2017)
  • Postgraduate Coordinator School of BABS (2007- 2011)
  • Honours Coordinator, School of BABS (2007-2010)
  • UNSW Faculty of Engineering, External Promotion Committee Member (Associate Professor) (2008-2009)
  • Committee Member, Human Research Ethics Advisory Panel D: Biomedical 2006-07

Awards and Achievements

  • 2015: Titan of Teaching Award, School of BABS, UNSW
  • 1996: Royal Society (UK) Postdoctoral Fellowship 
  • 1992-1996: Medical Research Council (MRC) PhD Scholarship
Journal articles
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Helbig KJ; Bull RA; Ambrose R; Beard MR; Blanchard H; Böcking T; Chua B; Colmant AMG; Crosse KM; Purcell DFJ; Fraser J; Hayward JA; Hamilton ST; Husain M; MacDiarmid R; MacKenzie JM; Moseley GW; Nguyen THO; Quiñones-Mateu ME; Robinson K; Rodrigo C; Rodriguez-Andres J; Rudd PA; Werno A; White P; Young P; Speck P; Hibma M; Drummer HE; Tachedjian G, 2020, 'Tenth scientific biennial meeting of the australasian virology society - AVS10 2019', Viruses, vol. 12, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060621
2020
Chhabra P; Graaf MD; Parra GI; Chan MCW; Green K; Martella V; Wang Q; White PA; Katayama K; Vennema H; Koopmans MPG; Vinjé J, 2020, 'Corrigendum: Updated classification of norovirus genogroups and genotypes', The Journal of general virology, vol. 101, pp. 893, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001475
2020
Eyre NS; Kirby EN; Anfiteatro DR; Bracho G; Russo AG; White PA; Aloia AL; Beard MR, 2020, 'Identification of Estrogen Receptor Modulators as Inhibitors of Flavivirus Infection', Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, vol. 64, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00289-20
2020
Tuipulotu DE; Fumian TM; Netzler NE; Mackenzie JM; White PA, 2019, 'The adenosine analogue NITD008 has potent antiviral activity against human and animal caliciviruses', Viruses, vol. 11, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11060496
2019
Netzler NE; Enosi Tuipulotu D; White PA, 2019, 'Norovirus antivirals: Where are we now?', Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 39, pp. 860 - 886, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/med.21545
2019
Fumian TM; Fioretti JM; Lun JH; dos Santos IAL; White PA; Miagostovich MP, 2019, 'Detection of norovirus epidemic genotypes in raw sewage using next generation sequencing', Environment International, vol. 123, pp. 282 - 291, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.054
2019
Fritzlar S; White PA; Mackenzie JM, 2019, 'The microtubule-associated innate immune sensor gef-h1 does not influence mouse norovirus replication in murine macrophages', Viruses, vol. 11, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11010047
2019
Lun JH; Crosbie ND; White PA, 2019, 'Genetic diversity and quantification of human mastadenoviruses in wastewater from Sydney and Melbourne, Australia', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 675, pp. 305 - 312, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.162
2019
Vinjé J; Estes MK; Esteves P; Green KY; Katayama K; Knowles NJ; L'Homme Y; Martella V; Vennema H; White PA; Ictv Report Consortium , 2019, 'ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Caliciviridae', The Journal of general virology, vol. 100, pp. 1469 - 1470, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001332
2019
Fritzlar S; Aktepe TE; Chao YW; Kenney ND; McAllaster MR; Wilen CB; White PA; Mackenzie JM, 2019, 'Mouse norovirus infection arrests host cell translation uncoupled from the stress granule-PKR-eIF2α Axis', mBio, vol. 10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00960-19
2019
Chhabra P; de Graaf M; Parra GI; Chan MCW; Green K; Martella V; Wang Q; White PA; Katayama K; Vennema H; Koopmans MPG; Vinjé J, 2019, 'Updated classification of norovirus genogroups and genotypes', The Journal of general virology, vol. 100, pp. 1393 - 1406, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001318
2019
Russo AG; Kelly AG; Tuipulotu DE; Tanaka MM; White PA, 2019, 'Novel insights into endogenous RNA viral elements in Ixodes scapularis and other arbovirus vector genomes', VIRUS EVOLUTION, vol. 5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/vez010
2019
Netzler NE; Tuipulotu DE; Vasudevan SG; Mackenzie JM; White PA, 2019, 'Antiviral candidates for treating hepatitis E virus infection', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 63, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00003-19
2019
Jones BJ; Flint J; Collins J; White PA; Lun JH; Durrheim DN, 2018, 'Gastroenteritis outbreak at a health function caused by an emerging recombinant strain of Norovirus GII.P16/GII.4 Sydney 2012, Australia', Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 146, pp. 970 - 971, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818000869
2018
Ferla S; Netzler NE; Ferla S; Veronese S; Tuipulotu DE; Guccione S; Brancale A; White PA; Bassetto M, 2018, 'In silico screening for human norovirus antivirals reveals a novel non-nucleoside inhibitor of the viral polymerase', Scientific Reports, vol. 8, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22303-y
2018
Tuipulotu DE; Netzler NE; Lun JH; Mackenzie JM; White PA, 2018, 'TLR7 Agonists Display Potent Antiviral Effects against Norovirus Infection via Innate Stimulation', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 62, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02417-17
2018
Lopez-Denman AJ; Russo A; Wagstaff KM; White PA; Jans DA; Mackenzie JM, 2018, 'Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the West Nile virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 is critical to infection', Cellular Microbiology, vol. 20, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.12848
2018
Lun JH; Hewitt J; Sitabkhan A; Eden JS; Enosi Tuipulotu D; Netzler NE; Morrell L; Merif J; Jones R; Huang B; Warrilow D; Ressler KA; Ferson MJ; Dwyer DE; Kok J; Rawlinson WD; Deere D; Crosbie ND; White PA, 2018, 'Emerging recombinant noroviruses identified by clinical and waste water screening article', Emerging Microbes and Infections, vol. 7, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0047-8
2018
Edwards RJ; Tuipulotu DE; Amos TG; O'Meally D; Richardson MF; Russell TL; Vallinoto M; Carneiro M; Ferrand N; Wilkins MR; Sequeira F; Rollins LA; Holmes EC; Shine R; White PA, 2018, 'Draft genome assembly of the invasive cane toad, Rhinella marina', GigaScience, vol. 7, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giy095
2018
Lun JH; Hewitt J; Yan GJH; Tuipulotu DE; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2018, 'Recombinant GII.P16/GII.4 sydney 2012 was the dominant norovirus identified in Australia and New Zealand in 2017', Viruses, vol. 10, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10100548
2018
Fumian TM; Tuipulotu DE; Netzler NE; Lun JH; Russo AG; Yan GJH; White PA, 2018, 'Potential therapeutic agents for feline calicivirus infection', Viruses, vol. 10, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10080433
2018
Fritzlar S; Jegaskanda S; Aktepe TE; Prier JE; Holz LE; White PA; Mackenzie JM, 2018, 'Mouse norovirus infection reduces the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class i proteins and inhibits CD8 + T cell recognition and activation', Journal of Virology, vol. 92, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00286-18
2018
Russo AG; Eden JS; Tuipulotu DE; Shi M; Selechnik D; Shine R; Rollins LA; Holmes EC; White PA, 2018, 'Viral discovery in the invasive Australian cane toad (Rhinella marina) using metatranscriptomic and genomic approaches', Journal of Virology, vol. 92, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00768-18
2018
Chan MCW; Hu Y; Chen H; Podkolzin AT; Zaytseva EV; Komano J; Sakon N; Poovorawan Y; Vongpunsawad S; Thanusuwannasak T; Hewitt J; Croucher D; Collins N; Vinjé J; Pang XL; Lee BE; De Graaf M; Van Beek J; Vennema H; Koopmans MPG; Niendorf S; Poljsak-Prijatelj M; Steyer A; White PA; Lun JH; Mans J; Hung TN; Kwok K; Cheung K; Lee N; Chan PKS, 2017, 'Global spread of norovirus gii.17 kawasaki 308, 2014–2016', Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, pp. 1354 - 1359, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2308.161138
2017
Tuipulotu DE; Netzler NE; Lun JH; Mackenzie JM; White PA, 2017, 'RNA sequencing of Murine norovirus-infected cells reveals Transcriptional alteration of genes important to Viral recognition and antigen Presentation', Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 8, http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00959
2017
Cotton BT; Hyde JL; Sarvestani ST; Sosnovtsev SV; Green KY; White PA; Mackenzie JM, 2017, 'The norovirus NS3 protein is a dynamic lipid- and microtubule-associated protein involved in viral RNA replication', Journal of Virology, vol. 91, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02138-16
2017
Urakova N; Warden AC; White PA; Strive T; Frese M, 2017, 'A motif in the F homomorph of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus polymerase is important for the subcellular localisation of the protein and its ability to induce redistribution of golgi membranes', Viruses, vol. 9, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9080202
2017
Eden JS; Chisholm RH; Bull RA; White PA; Holmes EC; Tanaka MM, 2017, 'Persistent infections in immunocompromised hosts are rarely sources of new pathogen variants', Virus Evolution, vol. 3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/vex018
2017
Doerflinger SY; Cortese M; Romero-Brey I; Menne Z; Tubiana T; Schenk C; White PA; Bartenschlager R; Bressanelli S; Hansman GS; Lohmann V, 2017, 'Membrane alterations induced by nonstructural proteins of human norovirus', PLoS Pathogens, vol. 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006705
2017
Netzler NE; Enosi Tuipulotu D; Eltahla AA; Lun JH; Ferla S; Brancale A; Urakova N; Frese M; Strive T; Mackenzie JM; White PA, 2017, 'Broad-spectrum non-nucleoside inhibitors for caliciviruses', Antiviral Research, vol. 146, pp. 65 - 75, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.07.014
2017
Lim KL; Hewitt J; Sitabkhan A; Eden JS; Lun J; Levy A; Merif J; Smith D; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2016, 'A multi-site study of norovirus molecular epidemiology in australia and New Zealand, 2013-2014', PLoS ONE, vol. 11, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145254
2016
Kelly AG; Netzler NE; White PA, 2016, 'Ancient recombination events and the origins of hepatitis E virus', BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 16, pp. 1 - 18, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-016-0785-y
2016
Urakova N; Netzler N; Kelly AG; Frese M; White PA; Strive T, 2016, 'Purification and biochemical characterisation of rabbit calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and identification of non-nucleoside inhibitors', Viruses, vol. 8, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v8040100
2016
Bretaña N; Boelen L; Bull R; Teutsch S; White P; Lloyd A; Luciani F, 2015, 'Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus among Prisoners, Australia, 2005–2012.', Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 21, pp. 765 - 774, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2105.141832
2015
Alhammad YMO; Maharajh S; Butcher R; Eden JS; White PA; Poumbourios P; Drummer HE, 2015, 'Longitudinal sequence and functional evolution within glycoprotein E2 in hepatitis C virus genotype 3a infection', PLoS ONE, vol. 10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126397
2015
Koromyslova AD; White PA; Hansman GS, 2015, 'Treatment of norovirus particles with citrate', Virology, vol. 485, pp. 199 - 204, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2015.07.009
2015
de Graaf M; van Beek J; Vennema H; Podkolzin AT; Hewitt J; Bucardo F; Templeton K; Mans J; Nordgren J; Reuter G; Lynch M; Rasmussen LD; Iritani N; Chan MC; Martella V; Ambert-Balay K; Vinjé J; White PA; Koopmans MP, 2015, 'Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus – End of the GII.4 era?', Euro surveillance : bulletin Européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, vol. 20
2015
Eltahla AA; Luciani F; White PA; Lloyd AR; Bull RA, 2015, 'Inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus polymerase; mode of action and resistance', Viruses, vol. 7, pp. 5206 - 5224, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v7102868
2015
de Graaf M; van Beek J; Vennema H; Podkolzin AT; Hewitt J; Bucardo F; Templeton K; Mans J; Nordgren J; Reuter G; Lynch M; Rasmussen LD; Iritani N; Chan MC; Martella V; Ambert-Balay K; Vinjé J; White PA; Koopmans MP, 2015, 'Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus – End of the GII.4 era?', Euro surveillance : bulletin Européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, vol. 20
2015
Castro TX; Cubel Garcia RDCN; Fumian TM; Costa EM; Mello R; White PA; Leite JPG, 2015, 'Detection and molecular characterization of caliciviruses (vesivirus and norovirus) in an outbreak of acute diarrhea in kittens from Brazil', Veterinary Journal, vol. 206, pp. 115 - 117, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.06.014
2015
Alavi M; Spelman T; Matthews GV; Haber PS; Day C; van Beek I; Walsh N; Yeung B; Bruneau J; Petoumenos K; Dolan K; Kaldor JM; Dore GJ; Hellard M; Grebely J; Marks P; Amin J; Doab A; Carroll T; Teutsch S; Li H; Oon A; Cameron B; Lloyd A; White P; Rawlinson W; Jacqueline Flynn ; Goy K; Nguyen O; von Bibra S; Ffrench R; McCaughan G; Madden A; Farrell G; Crofts N; Sievert W; Baker D; Jacka B; Pan Y; Shaw D; Sasadeusz J; Crawford D; Phung N; George J; Bloch M; Hughes B; Mollison L; Roberts S; Desmond P, 2015, 'Injecting risk behaviours following treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs: The Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C', International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 26, pp. 976 - 983, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.05.003
2015
White PA, 2014, 'Evolution of norovirus', Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 20, pp. 741 - 745, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-0691.12746
2014
Fitzgerald TL; Merritt TD; Zammit A; McLeod C; Landinez LM; White PA; Munnoch SA; Durrheim DN, 2014, 'An outbreak of norovirus genogroup II associated with New South Wales oysters', Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report, vol. 38, pp. E9 - E15
2014
Eden JS; Hewitt J; Lim KL; Boni MF; Merif J; Greening G; Ratcliff RM; Holmes EC; Tanaka MM; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2014, 'The emergence and evolution of the novel epidemic norovirus GII.4 variant Sydney 2012', Virology, vol. 450-451, pp. 106 - 113, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2013.12.005
2014
Eltahla AA; Tay E; Douglas MW; White PA, 2014, 'Cross-genotypic examination of hepatitis c virus polymerase inhibitors reveals a novel mechanism of action for thumb binders', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 58, pp. 7215 - 7224, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.03699-14
2014
Hartfield M; Bull R; White PA; Lloyd A; Luciani F; Alizon S, 2014, 'Evidence that hepatitis C virus genome partly controls infection outcome', Evolutionary Applications, vol. 7, pp. 533 - 547, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12151
2014
Hamblin SR; White PA; Tanaka MM, 2014, 'Viral niche construction alters hosts and ecosystems at multiple scales', Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 29, pp. 594 - 599, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2014.08.005
2014
Eltahla AA; Lim KL; Eden JS; Kelly AG; Mackenzie JM; White PA, 2014, 'Nonnucleoside inhibitors of norovirus rna polymerase: Scaffolds for rational drug design', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 58, pp. 3115 - 3123, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02799-13
2014
Kroneman A; Vega E; Vennema H; Vinjé J; White PA; Hansman G; Green K; Martella V; Katayama K; Koopmans M, 2013, 'Proposal for a unified norovirus nomenclature and genotyping', Archives of Virology, vol. 158, pp. 2059 - 2068, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-013-1708-5
2013
van Beek J; Ambert-Balay K; Botteldoorn N; Eden JS; Fonager J; Hewitt J; Iritani N; Kroneman A; Vennema H; Vinjé J; White PA; Koopmans M, 2013, 'Indications for worldwide increased norovirus activity associated with emergence of a new variant of Genotype II.4, LATE 2012', Eurosurveillance, vol. 18
2013
Flynn JK; Dore GJ; Hellard M; Yeung B; Rawlinson WD; White PA; Kaldor JM; Lloyd AR; Ffrench RA, 2013, 'Maintenance of Th1 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific responses in individuals with acute HCV who achieve sustained virological clearance after treatment', Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia), vol. 28, pp. 1770 - 1781, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.12265
2013
Eden J-S; Tanaka M; Boni MF; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2013, 'Recombination within the pandemic norovirus GII.4 lineage', Journal of Virology, vol. 87, pp. 6270 - 6282, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03464-12
2013
Lim KL; Eden JS; Oon LLE; White PA, 2013, 'Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in Singapore, 2004-2011', Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 85, pp. 1842 - 1851, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.23669
2013
Eltahla AA; Lackovic K; Marquis C; Eden JS; White PA, 2013, 'A fluorescence-based high-throughput screen to identify small compound inhibitors of the genotype 3a hepatitis c virus RNA polymerase', Journal of Biomolecular Screening, vol. 18, pp. 1027 - 1034, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057113489883
2013
Sugden PB; Pham TN; Ratnarajah S; Cameron B; Bull R; White PA; Michalak TI; Lloyd AR, 2013, 'Rare occurrence of occult hepatitis C virus in apparently uninfected injecting drug users: a two-centre, masked, case-control study', J Viral Hepat, vol. 20, pp. 725 - 728, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.12098
2013
Gouklani H; Bull RA; Beyer C; Coulibaly F; Gowens E; Drummer H; Netter H; White PA; Haqshenas G, 2012, 'Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B is involved in virus morphogenesis', Journal of Virology, vol. 86, pp. 5080 - 5088, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.07089-11
2012
Bull RA; Eden J-S; Luciani F; McElroy K; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2012, 'Contribution of intra- and interhost dynamics to norovirus evolution', Journal of Virology, vol. 86, pp. 3219 - 3229, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.06712-11
2012
Grebely J; Pham ST; Matthews G; Petoumenos K; Bull RA; Yeung B; Rawlinson WD; Kaldor JM; Lloyd AR; Hellard M; Dore GJ; White PA; Bull , 2012, 'Hepatitis C virus reinfection and superinfection among treated and untreated participants with recent infection', Hepatology, vol. 55, pp. 1058 - 1069, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.24754
2012
Sugden PB; Cameron B; Bull RA; White PA; Lloyd AR, 2012, 'Occult infection with hepatitis C virus: friend or foe?', Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 90, pp. 763 - 773, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2012.20
2012
White PA; Eden J-S; Hansman G, 2012, 'Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses and sapoviruses and their role in Australian outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis', Microbiology Australia, vol. 33, pp. 70 - 74, http://journals.cambridgemedia.com.au/UserDir/CambridgeJournal/Articles/08white409.pdf
2012
Flynn J; Dore GJ; Matthews G; Hellard M; Yeung B; Rawlinson W; White PA; Kaldor JM; Lloyd AR; Ffrench RA, 2012, 'Impaired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific interferon-responses in individuals with HIV who acquire HCV infection: Correlation with CD4 + T-cell counts', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 206, pp. 1568 - 1576, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jis544
2012
Eden J-S; Lim KL; White PA, 2012, 'Complete genome of the human norovirus GIV.1 strain, Lake Macquarie virus', Journal of Virology, vol. 86, pp. 10251 - 10252, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01604-12
2012
Matthews G; Pham STP; Hellard M; Grebely J; Zhang L; Oon A; Marks P; Van Beek IA; Rawlinson WD; Kaldor JM; Lloyd AR; Dore GJ; White PA, 2011, 'Patterns and characteristics of Hepatitis C transmission clusters among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C', Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 52, pp. 803 - 811, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq200
2011
Bull RA; Hyde J; MacKenzie J; Hansman G; Oka T; Takeda N; White PA, 2011, 'Comparison of the replication properties of murine and human calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases', Virus Genes, vol. 42, pp. 16 - 27, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-010-0535-y
2011
Bull RA; Luciani F; McElroy K; Gaudieri S; Pham ST; Chopra A; Cameron B; Maher L; Dore GJ; White PA; Lloyd AR, 2011, 'Sequential Bottlenecks Drive Viral Evolution in Early Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection', PLoS Pathog, vol. 7, pp. e1002243, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002243
2011
Flynn JK; Dore GJ; Hellard M; Yeung B; Rawlinson WD; White PA; Kaldor JM; Lloyd AR; Ffrench RA, 2011, 'Early IL-10 predominant responses are associated with progression from acute to chronic hepatitis C virus infection in injecting drug users', Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 18, pp. 549 - 561, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01335.x
2011
Smedley EJ; Stelzer-Braid ; Ressler K; Melling P; Bowden S; McCaw R; White PA; Vickers CR; Rawlinson WD; Ferson M, 2011, 'Transmission of hepatitis C virus to recipients of parenteral vitamin therapy in a primary care facility', Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 51, pp. 105 - 109, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.03.007
2011
Bull RA; White PA, 2011, 'Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus evolution', Trends in Microbiology, vol. 19, pp. 233 - 240, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2011.01.002
2011
Sharpe LJ; Eden J-S; White PA; Brown AJ, 2011, 'Norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is phosphorylated by an important survival kinase, Akt', Journal of Virology, vol. 85, pp. 10894 - 10898, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.05562-11
2011
Chan HT; White P; Sheorey H; Cocks J; Waters MJ, 2011, 'Evaluation of the biological efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination in wards of an Australian hospital', Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 79, pp. 125 - 128, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2011.06.009
2011
Pham STP; Bull RA; Bennett JM; Rawlinson WD; Lloyd AR; Dore GJD; White PA; Bull , 2010, 'Frequent multiple hepatitis C virus infections among injection drug users in a prison setting', Hepatology, vol. 52, pp. 1564 - 1572, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.23885
2010
Post V; White PA; Hall RM, 2010, 'Evolution of AbaR-type genomic resistance islands in multiply antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii', Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 65, pp. 1162 - 1170, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq095
2010
Bull RA; Eden J-S; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2010, 'Rapid Evolution of Pandemic Noroviruses of the GII.4 lineage', PLoS Pathogens, vol. 6, pp. e1000831 - e1000831, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000831
2010
Dore GJ; Hellard M; Matthews G; Grebely J; Haber PS; Petoumenos K; Yeung B; Marks P; Van Beek IA; McCaughan G; White PA; French R; Rawlinson WD; Lloyd AROLA; Kaldor JM; Dolan K, 2010, 'Effective treatment of injecting drug users with recently acquired hepatitis C virus infection', Gastroenterology, vol. 138, pp. 123 - 135, http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.09.019
2010
Tong WW; McAllister J; White PA; Kelleher A; Carr A, 2010, 'Transmission of triple-class, drug resistant HIV-1 in Australia', Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 40, pp. 657 - 661, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.2010.02296.x
2010
Eden J-S; Bull RA; Tu ET; McIver CJ; Michael JL; John AM; David WS; Jennie M; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2010, 'Norovirus GII.4 variant 2006b caused epidemics of acute gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007 and 2008', Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 49, pp. 265 - 271, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2010.09.001
2010
van de Laar T; Pybus O; Bruisten S; Brown D; Nelson M; Bhagani S; Vogel M; Baumgarten A; Chaix M; Fisher M; Gotz H; Matthews G; Neifer S; White PA; Rawlinson W; Pol S; Rockstroh J; Coutinho RA; Dore GJ; Dusheiko GM; Danta M, 2009, 'Evidence of a Large, International Network of HCV Transmission in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men', Gastroenterology, vol. 136, pp. 1609 - 1617, http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.02.006
2009
Matthews G; Hellard M; Haber P; Yeung B; Marks PB; Baker D; McCaughan G; Sasadeusz J; White PA; Rawlinson WD; Lloyd AR; Kaldor JM; Dore GJ, 2009, 'Characteristics and treatment outcomes among HIV-infected individuals in the Australian Trial in acute hepatitis C', Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 48, pp. 650 - 658, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/596770
2009
McIver CJ; Rismanto N; Smith C; Naing Z; Rayner B; Lusk M; Konecny P; White PA; Rawlinson WD, 2009, 'Multiplex PCR testing detection of higher-than-expected rates of cervical mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and trichomonas and viral agent infections in sexually active Australian women', Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 47, pp. 1358 - 1363, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01873-08
2009
Siebenga J; Vennema H; Zheng D; Vinje J; Bonita E; Lee X; Ho E; Choudekar A; Broor S; Halperin T; Rasool N; Hewitt JE; Greening G; Jin M; Lucero Y; O Ryan M; Hoehne M; Schreier E; Rateliff R; White PA; Lritani N; Reuter G; Koopmans M, 2009, 'Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus gii.4 variants, 2001-2007', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 200, pp. 802 - 812, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/605127
2009
Mak JK; Kim M; Pham JN; Tapsall JW; White PA, 2009, 'Antibiotic resistance determinants in nosocomial strains of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii', Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 63, pp. 47 - 54, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkn454
2009
Tu ET; Bull RA; Greening G; Hewitt JE; Lyon M; Marshall J; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2008, 'Epidemics of gastroenteritis during 2006 were associated with the spread of norovirus GII.4 variants 2006a and 2006b', Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 413 - 420, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/525259
2008
Nordmann P; Poirel L; Mak JK; White PA; Mciver CJ; Taylor PC, 2008, 'Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains expressing emerging antibiotic resistance determinants', Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 324 - 324, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/524898
2008
Tu ET; Bull RA; Kim M; Mciver CJ; Heron LG; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2008, 'Norovirus excretion in an aged-care setting', Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, pp. 2119 - 2121, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02198-07
2008
Tu ET; Nguyen TV; Lee PJ; Bull RA; Musto JA; Hansman G; White PA; Rawlinson WD; Mciver CJ, 2007, 'Norovirus GII.4 strains and outbreaks, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, pp. 1128 - 1130, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1307.060999
2007
Micallef JM; Macdonald V; Jauncey ME; Amin J; Rawlinson WD; Van Beek IA; Kaldor JM; White PA; Dore GJ, 2007, 'High Incidence of hepatitis C virus reinfection within a cohort of injecting drug users', Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 14, pp. 413 - 418, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2006.00812.x
2007
Bull RA; Tanaka M; White PA, 2007, 'Norovirus recombination', Journal of General Virology, vol. 88, pp. 3347 - 3359, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.83321-0
2007
Morgan CA; Herman N; White PA; Vesey G, 2006, 'Preservation of micro-organisms by drying; A review', Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 66, pp. 183 - 193, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2006.02.017
2006
Jones LA; Clancy LE; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2006, 'High-Affinity Aptamers to Subtype 3a Hepatitis C Virus Polymerase Display Genotypic Specificity', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 50, pp. 3019 - 3027, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01603-05
2006
Hansman G; Takeda N; Katayama K; Tu ET; Mciver CJ; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2006, 'Genetic diversity of sapovirus in children, Australia', Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, pp. 141 - 143, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1201.050846
2006
Bull RA; Tu ET; Mciver CJ; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2006, 'Emergence of a new norovirus genotype II.4 variant associated with global outbreaks of gastroenteritis', Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, pp. 327 - 333, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.44.2.327-333.2006
2006
Oka T; Katayama K; Hansman G; Kageyama T; Ogawa S; Wu FF; White PA; Takeda N, 2006, 'Detection of human sapovirus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction', Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 78, pp. 1347 - 1353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20699
2006
Shultz T; White PA; Tapsall JW, 2005, 'In vitro assessment of the further potential for development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisserza meningitides', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 49, pp. 1753 - 1760, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.49.5.1753-1760.2005
2005
White PA, 2005, 'Recent breakthroughs to combat Hepatitis C virus infection', Microbiology Australia, vol. 26, pp. 12 - 13
2005
Jones LA; Mciver CJ; Kim M; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2005, 'The aadB gene cassette is associated with bla(SHv) genes in Klebsiellaspecies producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 49, pp. 794 - 797, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.49.2.794-797.2005
2005
Clancy LE; Craig ME; White PA; Rawlinson WD, 2005, 'Human enterovirus isolates from an outbreak typed using heteroduplex mobility analysis', Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 76, pp. 215 - 222, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20344
2005
Bull RA; Hansman G; Clancy LE; Tanaka M; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2005, 'Norovirus recombination in ORF1/ORF2 overlap', Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, pp. 1079 - 1085, http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1107.041273
2005
Bowden S; McCaw R; White PA; Crofts N; Aitken CK, 2005, 'Detection of multiple hepatitis C virus genotypes in a cohort of injecting drug users', Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 12, pp. 322 - 324, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2005.00592.x
2005
Post JJ; Pan Y; Freeman AJ; Harvey CE; White PA; Palladinetti P; Haber P; Marinos G; Levy MH; Kaldor JM; Dolan K; Ffrench R; Lloyd AR; Rawlinson WD, 2004, 'Clearance of Hepatitis C Viremia Associated with Cellular Immunity in the Absence of Seroconversion in the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission in Prisons Study Cohort', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 189, pp. 1846 - 1855, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/383279
2004
Freeman A; Ffrench R; Post JJ; Harvey CE; Gilmour S; White PA; Marinos G; Van Beek IA; Rawlinson WD; Lloyd AR, 2004, 'Prevalence of Production of Virus-Specific Interferon- among Seronegative Hepatitis C-Resistant Subjects Reporting Injection Drug Use', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 190, pp. 1093 - 1097, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/422605
2004
Morgan CA; Bigeni P; Herman N; Gauci M; White PA; Vesey G, 2004, 'Production of precise microbiology standards using flow cytometry and freeze drying', CYTOMETRY PART A, vol. 62A, pp. 162 - 168, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.20075
2004
Mciver CJ; Hogan T; White PA; Tapsall JW, 2004, 'Patterns of quinolone susceptibility in Campylobacter jejuni associatedwith different gyrA mutations', Pathology, vol. 36, pp. 166 - 169, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313020410001672019
2004
Jauncey ME; Micallef JM; Gilmour S; Amin J; White PA; Rawlinson WD; Kaldor JM; Van Beek IA; Dore GJ, 2004, 'Clearance of hepatitis C virus after newly acquired infection ininjection drug users', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 190, pp. 1270 - 1274, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/423943
2004
Jones LA; Mciver CJ; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2003, 'Polymerase chain reaction screening for integrons can be used to complement resistance surveillance programs', Communicable Diseases Intelligence, vol. 27, pp. 103 - 110, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12807284
2003
Shultz T; Tapsall JW; White PA; Ryan CS; Lyras D; Rood JI; Binotto E; Richardson CJ, 2003, 'Chloramphenicol-resistant Neisseria meningitidis containing catP isolated in Australia', Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 52, pp. 856 - 859, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkg452
2003
Freeman A; Pan Y; Harvey CE; Post JJ; Law MG; White PA; Rawlinson WD; Lloyd AR; Marinos G; Ffrench R, 2003, 'The presence of an intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocyte response is associated with low viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection', Journal of Hepatology, vol. 38, pp. 349 - 356, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(02)00424-5
2003
White PA; Freeman A; Marinos G; Ffrench R; Rawlinson WD; Pan Y; Lloyd AR, 2002, 'Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus in Human Liver and Serum Samples by Using LightCycler Reverse Transcriptase PCR', Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, pp. 4346 - 4348, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.40.11.4346-4348.2002
2002
Mciver CJ; White PA; Jones LA; Karagiannis T; Harkness JL; Marriott D; Rawlinson WD, 2002, 'Epidemic Strains of Shigella sonnei Biotype g Carrying Integrons', Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, pp. 1538 - 1540, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.40.4.1538-1540.2002
2002
White PA; Hansman G; Rawlinson WD; Mciver CJ, 2002, 'Norwalk-like virus 95/96-US strain is a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia', Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 68, pp. 113 - 118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.10177
2002
Mciver CJ; Hansman G; White PA; Doultree JC; Catton M; Rawlinson WD, 2001, 'Diagnosis of enteric pathogens in children with gastroenteritis', Pathology, vol. 33, pp. 353 - 358, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313020126305
2001
White PA; Mciver CJ; Rawlinson WD, 2001, 'Integrons and Gene Cassettes in the Enterobacteriaceae', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 45, pp. 2658 - 2661, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.45.9.2658-2661.2001
2001
White PA; Shultz TR; Tapsall JW, 2001, 'Correlation of the in vitro susceptibilities to some newer quinolones of naturally occurring quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with changes in GyrA and ParC', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 45, pp. 734 - 738, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.45.3.734-738.2001
2001
McIver CJ; Hansman G; White P; Doultree JC; Catton M; Rawlinson WD, 2001, 'Diagnosis of enteric pathogens in children with gastroenteritis', Pathology, vol. 33, pp. 353 - 358, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313020126305
2001
White PA; Rawlinson WD, 2001, 'Current status of the aadA and dfr gene cassette families', Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 47, pp. 495 - 496
2001
White PA; Mciver CJ; Deng YM; Rawlinson WD, 2000, 'Characterisation of two new gene cassettes, aadA5 and dfrA17', FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 182, pp. 265 - 269, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(99)00600-X
2000
White PA; Li Z; Zhai X; Marilena G; Rawlinson WD, 2000, 'Mixed viral infection identified using heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA)', Virology, vol. 271, pp. 382 - 389, http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.2000.0323
2000
White PA; Rawlinson WD; Scott GM, 2000, 'Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains associated with congenital and perinatal infections', Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 61, pp. 481 - 487, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-9071(200008)61:4<481::AID-JMV11>3.0.CO;2-H
2000
Shultz TR; Tapsall JW; White PA; Newton P, 2000, 'An invasive isolate of neisseria meningitidis showing decreased susceptibility to quinolones', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 44, pp. 1116, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.44.4.1116-1116.2000
2000
White PA; Zhai X; Carter I; Zhao Y; Rawlinson WD, 2000, 'Simplified hepatitis C virus genotyping by heteroduplex mobility analysis', Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, pp. 477 - 482
2000
White PA, 1999, 'Sequence diversity in the 5’-UTR region of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus as assessed by sequencing, heteroduplex mobility assays and Single-strand conformation polymorphism', Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 83, pp. 99 - 101, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-0934(99)00110-X
1999
White PA, 1999, 'Characterisation of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase determinant in the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa', FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 175, pp. 27 - 35, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(99)00171-8
1999
Haber PS; Parsons S; Harper S; White PA; Rawlinson WD; Lloyd AR, 1999, 'Transmission of hepatitis C within Australian prisons.', Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 171, pp. 31 - 33
1999
White PA; Patel M; Nair S; Ashmore J; Galgut P; Wilson M; Henderson B; Olsen I, 1998, 'Control of the human cell cycle by a bacterial protein, gapstatin', European Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 77, pp. 228 - 238, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0171-9335(98)80111-8
1998
White PA; Nair SP; Kim MIJ; Wilson M; Henderson B, 1998, 'Molecular characterization of an outer membrane protein of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans belonging to the OmpA family', Infection and Immunity, vol. 66, pp. 369 - 372, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/iai.66.1.369-372.1998
1998
Meghji S; White PA; Nair SP; Reddi K; Heron K; Henderson B; Zaliani A; Fossati G; Mascagni P; Hunt JF; Roberts MM; Coates ARM, 1997, 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis chaperonin 10 stimulates bone resorption: A potential contributory factor in Pott's disease', Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 186, pp. 1241 - 1246, http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.186.8.1241
1997
Nair SP; Meghji S; Wilson M; Reddi K; White P; Henderson B, 1996, 'Bacterially induced bone destruction: Mechanisms and misconceptions', Infection and Immunity, vol. 64, pp. 2371 - 2380, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/iai.64.7.2371-2380.1996
1996
Reddi K; Nair SP; White PA; Hodges S; Tabona P; Meghji S; Poole S; Wilson M; Henderson B, 1996, 'Surface-associated material from the bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans contains a peptide which, in contrast to lipopolysaccharide, directly stimulates fibroblast interleukin-6 gene transcription', European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 236, pp. 871 - 876, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00871.x
1996
Kirby AC; Meghji S; Nair SP; White P; Reddi K; Nishihara T; Nakashima K; Willis AC; Sim R; Wilson M; Henderson B, 1995, 'The potent bone-resorbing mediator of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is homologous to the molecular chaperone GroEL', Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 96, pp. 1185 - 1194, http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI118150
1995
White P; Hess RE, 1995, 'Anglicizing of an American continuous miner', Mining Technology, vol. 77, pp. 121 - 127
1995
White PA; Wilson M; Nair SP; Kirby AC; Reddi K; Henderson B, 1995, 'Characterization of an antiproliferative surface-associated protein from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans which can be neutralized by sera from a proportion of patients with localized juvenile periodontitis', Infection and Immunity, vol. 63, pp. 2612 - 2618, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/iai.63.7.2612-2618.1995
1995
Book Chapters
add
Lim KL; Netzler NE; Hansman GS; Mackenzie JM; White PA, 2017, 'Norovirus and Sapovirus', in White PA; Netzler NE; Hansman GS (ed.), Foodborne Viral Pathogens
2017
Netzler NE; White PA, 2017, 'Introduction [Foodborne Viral Pathogens]', in White PA; Netzler NE; Hansman GS (ed.), Foodborne Viral Pathogens, CRC Press
2017
Netzler NE; Kelly AG; White PA, 2017, 'Hepatitis E Virus, an Etiological Agent of Foodborne and Waterborne Hepatitis', in White PA; Netzler NE; Hansman GS (ed.), Foodborne Viral Pathogens
2017
Revill PA; Bowden S; White PA, 2010, 'Viral Genotyping and the Sequencing Revolution', in Jerome KR (ed.), Lennette's Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections, Informa Healthcare, New York, pp. 40 - 58, http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/9781420084962.004
2010
Bull RA; White PA, 2010, 'Genome organization and recombination', in Hansman GS; Jiang XJ; Green KY (ed.), Caliciviruses: Molecular and Cellular Virology, Caister Academic Press, Portland, USA, pp. 45 - 63, http://www.horizonpress.com/calicivirus
2010
Mciver CJ; Bull RA; Tu ET; Rawlinson WD; White PA, 2005, 'Norovirus and Sapovirus', in McIver CJ (ed.), A Compendium of Laboratory Diagnostic Methods for Common and Unusual Enteric Pathogens - an Australian Perspective, edn. 1, Australian Society of Microbiology, Australia, pp. 191 - 198
2005
Books
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White PA; Netzler NE; Hansman GS, (eds.), 2016, Foodborne Viral Pathogens, CRC Press
2016
Conference Abstracts
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Lim KL; Sitabkhan A; Lun J; Levy A; Smith D; White P, 2015, 'An update of norovirus epidemiology in Australia, 2013-2014', in JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Vol. 70, pp. S51 - S51, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2015.07.121
2015
Micallef JM; Jauncey M; Amin J; Rawlinson W; Gilmour S; van Beek I; Kaldor JM; White PA; Dore GJ, 2003, 'Hepatitis C virus reinfection within a cohort of injecting drug users.', in HEPATOLOGY, W B SAUNDERS CO, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, Vol. 38, pp. 266A - 266A, presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Disease, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, 24 October 2003 - 28 October 2003, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000185816700230&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a29b250adbe88d1
2003
Conference Papers
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Beard MR; Ffrench R; Gowans EJ; Helbig KJ; Eyre NM; Douglas MMW; Grebely J; Ahlenstiel G; Locarnini S; George J; Shackel NA; White PA; Thompson AJ; Drummer HE, 2014, 'A Summary of the 20th International Symposium on Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses', in Gastroenterology, pp. e1 - e4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2014.05.022
2014
Luciani F; Bull RA; Cameron B; Gaudieri S; Nguyen N; Yuen D; White PA; Purcell DFJ; Foung S; Lloyd AR, 2012, 'IMMUNE RESPONSES AGAINST FOUNDER HEPATITIS C VIRUSES IN ACUTE ASYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS', in JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Barcelona, SPAIN, pp. S312 - S312, presented at 47th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-the-Liver (EASL), Barcelona, SPAIN, 18 April 2012 - 22 April 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(12)60809-5
2012
Luciani F; Bull R; Mcelroy K; Pham S; Cameron B; Chopra A; Gaudieri S; Cooper D; Lloyd A; White P, 2011, 'EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS DURING VERY EARLY INFECTIONS: VIROLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL INSIGHTS', in JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Berlin, GERMANY, pp. S18 - S18, presented at 46th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-the-Liver (EASL), Berlin, GERMANY, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(11)60040-8
2011
Applegate T; Gaudieri S; Pham S; White P; Grebely J; Hellard M; Suppiah V; George J; Lloyd A; Dore G; Matthews GV, 2011, 'Impact of host and viral characteristics on treatment outcome within hepatitis C transmission clusters in HIV-positive individuals with recently acquired HCV', in ANTIVIRAL THERAPY, INT MEDICAL PRESS LTD, Los Cabos, MEXICO, pp. A87 - A87, presented at International Workshop on HIV and Hepatitis Virus Drug Resistance and Curative Strategies, Los Cabos, MEXICO, 07 June 2011 - 11 June 2011, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000294375700092&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a29b250adbe88d1
2011
Dore GJ; Hellard M; Matthews G; Grebely J; Haber PS; Petoumenos K; Yeung B; Marks P; van Beek I; McCaughan GW; White PA; Ffrench RA; Rawlinson W; Lloyd AR; Kaldor J, 2009, 'TREATMENT OF RECENT HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION IN A PREDOMINANTLY INJECTION DRUG USER COHORT: THE ATAHC STUDY', in HEPATOLOGY, JOHN WILEY & SONS INC, Boston, MA, pp. 723A - 723A, presented at 60th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases, Boston, MA, 30 October 2009 - 03 November 2009, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000270456000887&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a29b250adbe88d1
2009
Matthews G; Grebely J; Pham ST; Hellard M; Marks P; Rawlinson W; Kaldor J; Lloyd AR; White PA; Dore GJ, 2009, 'EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RECENTLY ACQUIRED HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) INFECTION IN HCV AND HCV/HIV INFECTED PARTICIPANTS IN THE ATAHC STUDY', in HEPATOLOGY, JOHN WILEY & SONS INC, Boston, MA, pp. 668A - 668A, presented at 60th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases, Boston, MA, 30 October 2009 - 03 November 2009, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000270456000775&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a29b250adbe88d1
2009
Matthews G; White PA; Hellard M; Grebely J; Marks P; Yeung B; Kaldor JM; Lloyd AR; Danta M; Dore GJ, 2008, 'Evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the Australian trial in acute hepatitis C (ATAHC) study', in Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Blackwell Publishing Asia, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, pp. A365 - A366, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000264953600081&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a
2008
Grebely J; Matthews G; White PA; Renkin M; Flynn J; Ffrench R; Kaldor JM; Hellard M; Lloyd AR; Dore GJ, 2008, 'Incidence and risk factors for HCV reinfection and superinfection in individuals treated for acute/early chronic HCV infection', in Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Blackwell Publishing Asia, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, pp. A343 - A344, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000264953600029&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a
2008
Flynn J; White PA; Grebely J; Kaldor JM; Hellard M; Dore GJ; Lloyd AR; Ffrench R, 2008, 'Immunity to acute hepatitis C and the influence of early therapy', in Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Blackwell Publishing Asia, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, pp. A356 - A356, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000264953600066&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a
2008
Maher L; Dore G; Treloar C; Rawlinson W; White P; Dolan K; Zekry A; Madden A; Loveday S; Kaldor J; Lloyd A, 2008, 'Preparedness for candidate hepatitis C vaccine trials in people who inject drugs: challenges and opportunities', in Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Blackwell Publishing Asia, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, pp. A358 - A358, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000264953600072&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a
2008
White PA; Grebely J; Matthews G; Flynn J; Renkin M; Kaldor JM; Lloyd AR; Hellard M; Ffrench R; Dore GJ, 2008, 'Natural history of HCV reinfection and superinfection', in Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Blackwell Publishing Asia, Carlton, Victoria, Australia, pp. A355 - A355, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000264953600064&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a
2008
White PA; Grebely J; Flynn J; Matthews G; Renkin M; Yeung B; Rawlinson WD; Kaldor JM; Hellard M; Lloyd AR; Ffrench R; Dore GJ, 2008, 'NATURAL HISTORY OF HCV SUPERINFECTION AND REINFECTION', in Hepatology, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp. 1056 - 1057, presented at Hepatology, San Francisco, CA, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000259757401440&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a
2008
Matthews G; Grebely J; White PA; Renkin M; Marks PB; Ffrench R; Rawlinson WD; Kaldor JM; Hellard M; Lloyd AR; Dore GJ, 2008, 'INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR HCV SUPERINFECTION AND REINFECTION IN INDIVIDUALS TREATED FOR ACUTE/EARLY CHRONIC HCV INFECTION', in Hepatology, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp. 1844 - 1845, presented at Hepatology, San Francisco, CA, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000259757402521&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a
2008
Ffrench RA; Flynn J; Goy K; Hosseiny P; Pan Y; Rawlinson WD; White PA; Nguyen O; Hellard M; Kaldor JM; Dore GJ; Lloyd AR, 2006, 'Comprehensive analysis of IFN-gamma and IL-2 production by T cells in acute and chronic HCV infection', in Journal of Clinical Virology, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. S123 - S123, presented at Journal of Clinical Virology, Melbourne, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-6532(06)80380-X
2006
Hellard M; Dore G; Haber P; Marks P; Matthews G; Yeung B; Nguyen O; Pan Y; Ffrench R; McCaughan G; Van Beek I; White P; Dolan K; Rawlinson W; Lloyd A; Kaldor J, 2006, 'Australian trial in acute hepatitis C: preliminary findings', in JOURNAL OF CLINICAL VIROLOGY, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Paris, FRANCE, pp. S139 - S139, presented at 12th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Paris, FRANCE, 01 July 2006 - 05 July 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-6532(06)80430-0
2006
White PA, 2006, 'Characterisation and inhibition of the enzymatic activity of genotype 3a polymerase', in Journal of Clinical Virology, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. S110 - S110, presented at 12th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Paris, FRANCE, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-6532(06)80340-9
2006
Freeman AJ; Post JJ; Harvey CE; Pan Y; White PA; Marinos G; Rawlinson WD; Ffrench R; Lloyd AR, 2002, 'Cellular immunity in people resistant to HCV infection.', in HEPATOLOGY, W B SAUNDERS CO, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, pp. 263A - 263A, presented at 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases (AASLD), BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, 01 November 2002 - 05 November 2002, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000178301700383&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a29b250adbe88d1
2002

Norovirus, Hepatitis viruses, Viral evolution, Antiviral agents, Viral Transmission, Outbreaks, cane toad viruses.