Biotechnology can be defined as the use of various biological processes to make products and perform services. Biotechnology is used for the production of food, industrial chemicals, development of improved crops and livestock for farming, environmental clean-up, forensics and the production of pharmaceuticals. Biopharmaceuticals include hormones, vaccines, anti-hypertensive agents, anti-inflammatory agents and new therapies for the treatment of cancer. Modern biotechnology makes practical use of the most recent scientific advances in molecular genetics and molecular cell biology. The sequencing of the human genome and the rapid emergence of high-throughput genomic and proteomic techniques has resulted in a surge of new drug targets.
The world's ability to cope with many environmental, agricultural, manufacturing and medical problems in the 21st century will depend heavily on advances in biotechnology. Bioprocesses are used for environmental remediation, extraction of minerals from low-grade ores, and development of novel processes to treat waste and degrade recalcitrant molecules.
NB: Biotechnology can be also studied as a 4-year specialised Degree.